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Modern methods of mathematical modeling of blood flow using reduced order methods
Computer Research and Modeling, 2018, v. 10, no. 5, pp. 581604Views (last year): 62. Citations: 2 (RSCI).The study of the physiological and pathophysiological processes in the cardiovascular system is one of the important contemporary issues, which is addressed in many works. In this work, several approaches to the mathematical modelling of the blood flow are considered. They are based on the spatial order reduction and/or use a steadystate approach. Attention is paid to the discussion of the assumptions and suggestions, which are limiting the scope of such models. Some typical mathematical formulations are considered together with the brief review of their numerical implementation. In the first part, we discuss the models, which are based on the full spatial order reduction and/or use a steadystate approach. One of the most popular approaches exploits the analogy between the flow of the viscous fluid in the elastic tubes and the current in the electrical circuit. Such models can be used as an individual tool. They also used for the formulation of the boundary conditions in the models using one dimensional (1D) and three dimensional (3D) spatial coordinates. The use of the dynamical compartment models allows describing haemodynamics over an extended period (by order of tens of cardiac cycles and more). Then, the steadystate models are considered. They may use either total spatial reduction or two dimensional (2D) spatial coordinates. This approach is used for simulation the blood flow in the region of microcirculation. In the second part, we discuss the models, which are based on the spatial order reduction to the 1D coordinate. The models of this type require relatively small computational power relative to the 3D models. Within the scope of this approach, it is also possible to include all large vessels of the organism. The 1D models allow simulation of the haemodynamic parameters in every vessel, which is included in the model network. The structure and the parameters of such a network can be set according to the literature data. It also exists methods of medical data segmentation. The 1D models may be derived from the 3D Navier – Stokes equations either by asymptotic analysis or by integrating them over a volume. The major assumptions are symmetric flow and constant shape of the velocity profile over a crosssection. These assumptions are somewhat restrictive and arguable. Some of the current works paying attention to the 1D model’s validation, to the comparing different 1D models and the comparing 1D models with clinical data. The obtained results reveal acceptable accuracy. It allows concluding, that the 1D approach can be used in medical applications. 1D models allow describing several dynamical processes, such as pulse wave propagation, Korotkov’s tones. Some physiological conditions may be included in the 1D models: gravity force, muscles contraction force, regulation and autoregulation.

Introduction to the parallelization of algorithms and programs
Computer Research and Modeling, 2010, v. 2, no. 3, pp. 231272Views (last year): 53. Citations: 22 (RSCI).Difference of software development for parallel computing technology from sequential programming is dicussed. Arguements for introduction of new phases into technology of software engineering are given. These phases are: decomposition of algorithms, assignment of jobs to performers, conducting and mapping of logical to physical performers. Issues of performance evaluation of algorithms are briefly discussed. Decomposition of algorithms and programs into parts that can be executed in parallel is dicussed.

Mathematical model and computer analysis of tests for homogeneity of “dose–effect” dependence
Computer Research and Modeling, 2012, v. 4, no. 2, pp. 267273Views (last year): 6.The given work is devoted to the comparison of two tests for homogeneity: chisquare test based on contingency tables of 2 × 2 and test for homogeneity based on asymptotic distributions of the summarized square error of a distribution function estimators in the model of ”dose–effect” dependence. The evaluation of test power is performed by means of computer simulation. In order to design efficiency functions the method of kernel regression estimator based on Nadaray–Watson estimator is used.

CABARET scheme implementation for free shear layer modeling
Computer Research and Modeling, 2017, v. 9, no. 6, pp. 881903Views (last year): 17.In present paper we reexamine the properties of CABARET numerical scheme formulated for a weakly compressible fluid flow basing the results of free shear layer modeling. Kelvin–Helmholtz instability and successive generation of twodimensional turbulence provide a wide field for a scheme analysis including temporal evolution of the integral energy and enstrophy curves, the vorticity patterns and energy spectra, as well as the dispersion relation for the instability increment. The most part of calculations is performed for Reynolds number $\text{Re} = 4 \times 10^5$ for square grids sequentially refined in the range of $128^22048^2$ nodes. An attention is paid to the problem of underresolved layers generating a spurious vortex during the vorticity layers rollup. This phenomenon takes place only on a coarse grid with $128^2$ nodes, while the fully regularized evolution pattern of vorticity appears only when approaching $1024^2$node grid. We also discuss the vorticity resolution properties of grids used with respect to dimensional estimates for the eddies at the borders of the inertial interval, showing that the available range of grids appears to be sufficient for a good resolution of small–scale vorticity patches. Nevertheless, we claim for the convergence achieved for the domains occupied by largescale structures.
The generated turbulence evolution is consistent with theoretical concepts imposing the emergence of large vortices, which collect all the kinetic energy of motion, and solitary smallscale eddies. The latter resemble the coherent structures surviving in the filamentation process and almost noninteracting with other scales. The dissipative characteristics of numerical method employed are discussed in terms of kinetic energy dissipation rate calculated directly and basing theoretical laws for incompressible (via enstrophy curves) and compressible (with respect to the strain rate tensor and dilatation) fluid models. The asymptotic behavior of the kinetic energy and enstrophy cascades comply with twodimensional turbulence laws $E(k) \propto k^{−3}, \omega^2(k) \propto k^{−1}$. Considering the instability increment as a function of dimensionless wave number shows a good agreement with other papers, however, commonly used method of instability growth rate calculation is not always accurate, so some modification is proposed. Thus, the implemented CABARET scheme possessing remarkably small numerical dissipation and good vorticity resolution is quite competitive approach compared to other highorder accuracy methods

Equilibrium states of the second kind of the Kuramoto – Sivashinsky equation with the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions
Computer Research and Modeling, 2019, v. 11, no. 1, pp. 5969Views (last year): 27.The wellknown evolutionary equation of mathematical physics, which in modern mathematical literature is called the Kuramoto – Sivashinsky equation, is considered. In this paper, this equation is studied in the original edition of the authors, where it was proposed, together with the homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions.
The question of the existence and stability of local attractors formed by spatially inhomogeneous solutions of the boundary value problem under study has been studied. This issue has become particularly relevant recently in connection with the simulation of the formation of nanostructures on the surface of semiconductors under the influence of an ion flux or laser radiation. The question of the existence and stability of secondorder equilibrium states has been studied in two different ways. In the first of these, the Galerkin method was used. The second approach is based on using strictly grounded methods of the theory of dynamic systems with infinitedimensional phase space: the method of integral manifolds, the theory of normal forms, asymptotic methods.
In the work, in general, the approach from the wellknown work of D.Armbruster, D.Guckenheimer, F.Holmes is repeated, where the approach based on the application of the Galerkin method is used. The results of this analysis are substantially supplemented and developed. Using the capabilities of modern computers has helped significantly complement the analysis of this task. In particular, to find all the solutions in the fourand fiveterm Galerkin approximations, which for the studied boundaryvalue problem should be interpreted as equilibrium states of the second kind. An analysis of their stability in the sense of A. M. Lyapunov’s definition is also given.
In this paper, we compare the results obtained using the Galerkin method with the results of a bifurcation analysis of a boundary value problem based on the use of qualitative analysis methods for infinitedimensional dynamic systems. Comparison of two variants of results showed some limited possibilities of using the Galerkin method.

A new form of differential equations in modeling of the motion of a heavy solid
Computer Research and Modeling, 2016, v. 8, no. 6, pp. 873884Views (last year): 6.The different types of the reduced equations are known in the dynamics a heavy rigid body with a fixed point. Since the Euler−Poisson’s equations admit the three first integrals, then for the first approach the obtaining new forms of equations are usually based on these integrals. The system of six scalar equations can be transformed to a thirdorder system with them. However, in indicated approach the reduced system will have a feature as in the form of radical expressions a relatively the components of the angular velocity vector. This fact prevents the effective the effective application of numerical and asymptotic methods of solutions research. In the second approach the different types of variables in a problem are used: Euler’s angles, Hamilton’s variables and other variables. In this approach the Euler−Poisson’s equations are reduced to either the system of secondorder differential equations, or the system for which the special methods are effective. In the article the method of finding the reduced system based on the introduction of an auxiliary variable is applied. This variable characterizes the mixed product of the angular momentum vector, the vector of vertical and the unit vector barycentric axis of the body. The system of four differential equations, two of which are linear differential equations was obtained. This system has no analog and does not contain the features that allows to apply to it the analytical and numerical methods. Received form of equations is applied for the analysis of a special class of solutions in the case when the center of mass of the body belongs to the barycentric axis. The variant in which the sum of the squares of the two components of the angular momentum vector with respect to not barycentric axes is constant. It is proved that this variant exists only in the Steklov’s solution. The obtained form of Euler−Poisson’s equations can be used to the investigation of the conditions of existence of other classes of solutions. Certain perspectives obtained equations consists a record of all solutions for which the center of mass is on barycentric axis in the variables of this article. It allows to carry out a classification solutions of Euler−Poisson’s equations depending on the order of invariant relations. Since the equations system specified in the article has no singularities, it can be considered in computer modeling using numerical methods.

Stability investigation of finitedifference schemes of lattice Boltzmann method for diffusion modelling
Computer Research and Modeling, 2016, v. 8, no. 3, pp. 485500Stability of finite difference schemes of lattice Boltzmann method for modelling of 1D diffusion for cases of D1Q2 and D1Q3 lattices is investigated. Finite difference schemes are constructed for the system of linear Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook (BGK) kinetic equations on single particle distribution functions. Brief review of articles of other authors is realized. With application of multiscale expansion by Chapman–Enskog method it is demonstrated that system of BGK kinetic equations at small Knudsen number is transformated to scalar linear diffusion equation. The solution of linear diffusion equation is obtained as a sum of single particle distribution functions. The method of linear travelling wave propagation is used to show the unconditional asymptotic stability of the solution of Cauchy problem for the system of BGK equations at all values of relaxation time. Stability of the scheme for D1Q2 lattice is demonstrated by the method of differential approximation. Stability condition is written in form of the inequality on values of relaxation time. The possibility of the reduction of stability analysis of the schemes for BGK equations to the analysis of special schemes for diffusion equation for the case of D1Q3 lattice is investigated. Numerical stability investigation is realized by von Neumann method. Absolute values of the eigenvalues of the transition matrix are investigated in parameter space of the schemes. It is demonstrated that in wide range of the parameters changing the values of modulas of eigenvalues are lower than unity, so the scheme is stable with respect to initial conditions.
Keywords: lattice Boltzmann method, stability.Views (last year): 2. Citations: 1 (RSCI). 
Kinetic equations for modelling of diffusion processes by lattice Boltzmann method
Computer Research and Modeling, 2017, v. 9, no. 6, pp. 919936Views (last year): 25.The system of linear hyperbolic kinetic equations with the relaxation term of Bhatnagar–Gross–Krook type for modelling of linear diffusion processes by the lattice Boltzmann method is considered. The coefficients of the equations depend on the discrete velocities from the pattern in velocity space. The system may be considered as an alternative mathematical model of the linear diffusion process. The cases of widelyused patterns on speed variables are considered. The case of parametric coefficients takes into account. By application of the method of Chapman–Enskog asymptotic expansion it is obtained, that the system may be reduced to the linear diffusion equation. The expression of the diffusion coefficient is obtained. As a result of the analysis of this expression, the existence of numerical diffusion in solutions obtained by application of lattice Boltzmann equations is demonstrated. Stability analysis is based on the investigation of wave modes defined by the solutions of hyperbolic system. In the cases of some onedimensional patterns stability analysis may be realized analytically. In other cases the algorithm of numerical stability investigation is proposed. As a result of the numerical investigation stability of the solutions is shown for a wide range of input parameters. The sufficiency of the positivity of the relaxation parameter for the stability of solutions is demonstrated. The dispersion of the solutions, which is not realized for a linear diffusion equation, is demonstrated analytically and numerically for a wide range of the parameters. But the dispersive wave modes can be damped as an asymptotically stable solutions and the behavior of the solution is similar to the solution of linear diffusion equation. Numerical schemes, obtained from the proposed systems by various discretization techniques may be considered as a tool for computer modelling of diffusion processes, or as a solver for stationary problems and in applications of the splitting lattice Boltzmann method. Obtained results may be used for the comparison of the theoretical properties of the difference schemes of the lattice Boltzmann method for modelling of linear diffusion.

Application of a hybrid largeparticle method to the computation of the interaction of a shock wave with a gas suspension layer
Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, v. 12, no. 6, pp. 13231338For a nonhomogeneous model transport equation with source terms, the stability analysis of a linear hybrid scheme (a combination of upwind and central approximations) is performed. Stability conditions are obtained that depend on the hybridity parameter, the source intensity factor (the product of intensity per time step), and the weight coefficient of the linear combination of source power on the lower and uppertime layer. In a nonlinear case for the nonequilibrium by velocities and temperatures equations of gas suspension motion, the linear stability analysis was confirmed by calculation. It is established that the maximum permissible Courant number of the hybrid largeparticle method of the second order of accuracy in space and time with an implicit account of friction and heat exchange between gas and particles does not depend on the intensity factor of interface interactions, the grid spacing and the relaxation times of phases (Kstability). In the traditional case of an explicit method for calculating the source terms, when a dimensionless intensity factor greater than 10, there is a catastrophic (by several orders of magnitude) decrease in the maximum permissible Courant number, in which the calculated time step becomes unacceptably small.
On the basic ratios of Riemann’s problem in the equilibrium heterogeneous medium, we obtained an asymptotically exact selfsimilar solution of the problem of interaction of a shock wave with a layer of gassuspension to which converge the numerical solution of twovelocity twotemperature dynamics of gassuspension when reducing the size of dispersed particles.
The dynamics of the shock wave in gas and its interaction with a limited gas suspension layer for different sizes of dispersed particles: 0.1, 2, and 20 ìm were studied. The problem is characterized by two discontinuities decay: reflected and refracted shock waves at the left boundary of the layer, reflected rarefaction wave, and a past shock wave at the right contact edge. The influence of relaxation processes (dimensionless phase relaxation times) to the flow of a gas suspension is discussed. For small particles, the times of equalization of the velocities and temperatures of the phases are small, and the relaxation zones are subgrid. The numerical solution at characteristic points converges with relative accuracy $O \, (10^{4})$ to selfsimilar solutions.

Optimal fishing and evolution of fish migration routes
Computer Research and Modeling, 2019, v. 11, no. 5, pp. 879893A new discrete ecologicalevolutionary mathematical model is presented, in which the search mechanisms for evolutionarily stable migration routes of fish populations are implemented. The proposed adaptive designs have a small dimension, and therefore have high speed. This allows carrying out calculations on longterm perspective for an acceptable machine time. Both geometric approaches of nonlinear analysis and computer “asymptotic” methods were used in the study of stability. The migration dynamics of the fish population is described by a certain Markov matrix, which can change during evolution. The “basis” matrices are selected in the family of Markov matrices (of fixed dimension), which are used to generate migration routes of mutant. A promising direction of the evolution of the spatial behavior of fish is revealed for a given fishery and food supply, as a result of competition of the initial population with mutants. This model was applied to solve the problem of optimal catch for the long term, provided that the reservoir is divided into two parts, each of which has its own owner. Dynamic programming is used, based on the construction of the Bellman function, when solving optimization problems. A paradoxical strategy of “luring” was discovered, when one of the participants in the fishery temporarily reduces the catch in its water area. In this case, the migrating fish spends more time in this area (on condition of equal food supply). This route is evolutionarily fixes and does not change even after the resumption of fishing in the area. The second participant in the fishery can restore the status quo by applying “luring” to its part of the water area. Endless sequence of “luring” arises as a kind of game “giveaway”. A new effective concept has been introduced — the internal price of the fish population, depending on the zone of the reservoir. In fact, these prices are Bellman's private derivatives, and can be used as a tax on caught fish. In this case, the problem of longterm fishing is reduced to solving the problem of oneyear optimization.
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