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Global bifurcation analysis of a rational Holling system
Computer Research and Modeling, 2017, v. 9, no. 4, pp. 537545Views (last year): 11.In this paper, we consider a quartic family of planar vector fields corresponding to a rational Holling system which models the dynamics of the populations of predators and their prey in a given ecological or biomedical system and which is a variation on the classical Lotka–Volterra system. For the latter system, the change of the prey density per unit of time per predator called the response function is proportional to the prey density. This means that there is no saturation of the predator when the amount of available prey is large. However, it is more realistic to consider a nonlinear and bounded response function, and in fact different response functions have been used in the literature to model the predator response. After algebraic transformations, the rational Holling system can be written in the form of a quartic dynamical system. To investigate the character and distribution of the singular points in the phase plane of the quartic system, we use our method the sense of which is to obtain the simplest (wellknown) system by vanishing some parameters (usually field rotation parameters) of the original system and then to input these parameters successively one by one studying the dynamics of the singular points (both finite and infinite) in the phase plane. Using the obtained information on singular points and applying our geometric approach to the qualitative analysis, we study the limit cycle bifurcations of the quartic system. To control all of the limit cycle bifurcations, especially, bifurcations of multiple limit cycles, it is necessary to know the properties and combine the effects of all of the rotation parameters. It can be done by means of the Wintner–Perko termination principle stating that the maximal oneparameter family of multiple limit cycles terminates either at a singular point which is typically of the same multiplicity (cyclicity) or on a separatrix cycle which is also typically of the same multiplicity (cyclicity). Applying this principle, we prove that the quartic system (and the corresponding rational Holling system) can have at most two limit cycles surrounding one singular point.

FlowVision: Industrial computational fluid dynamics
Computer Research and Modeling, 2017, v. 9, no. 1, pp. 520Views (last year): 30. Citations: 8 (RSCI).The work submits new release of the FlowVision software designed for automation of engineering calculations in computational fluid dynamics: FlowVision 3.09.05. The FlowVision software is used for solving different industrial problems. Its popularity is based on the capability to solve complex nontradition problems involving different physical processes. The paradigm of complete automation of laborintensive and timetaking processes like grid generation makes FlowVision attractive for many engineers. FlowVision is completely developerindependent software. It includes an advanced graphical interface, the system for specifying a computational project as well as the system for flow visualization on planes, on curvilinear surfaces and in volume by means of different methods: plots, color contours, isolines, isosurfaces, vector fields. Besides that, FlowVision provides tools for calculation of integral characteristics on surfaces and in volumetric regions.
The software is based on the finitevolume approach to approximation of the partial differential equations describing fluid motion and accompanying physical processes. It provides explicit and implicit methods for time integration of these equations. The software includes automated generator of unstructured grid with capability of its local dynamic adaptation. The solver involves twolevel parallelism which allows calculations on computers with distributed and shared memory (coexisting in the same hardware). FlowVision incorporates a wide spectrum of physical models: different turbulence models, models for mass transfer accounting for chemical reactions and radioactive decay, several combustion models, a dispersed phase model, an electrohydrodynamic model, an original VOF model for tracking moving interfaces. It should be noted that turbulence can be simulated within URANS, LES, and ILES approaches. FlowVision simulates fluid motion with velocities corresponding to all possible flow regimes: from incompressible to hypersonic. This is achieved by using an original allspeed velocitypressure split algorithm for integration of the NavierStokes equations.
FlowVision enables solving multiphysic problems with use of different modeling tools. For instance, one can simulate multiphase flows with use of the VOF method, flows past bodies moving across a stationary grid (within Euler approach), flows in rotary machines with use of the technology of sliding grid. Besides that, the software solves fluidstructure interaction problems using the technology of twoway coupling of FlowVision with finiteelement codes. Two examples of solving challenging problems in the FlowVision software are demonstrated in the given article. The first one is splashdown of a spacecraft after deceleration by means of jet engines. This problem is characterized by presence of moving bodies and contact surface between the air and the water in the computational domain. The supersonic jets interact with the airwater interphase. The second problem is simulation of the work of a human heart with artificial and natural valves designed on the basis of tomographic investigations with use of a finiteelement model of the heart. This problem is characterized by twoway coupling between the “liquid” computational domain and the finiteelement model of the hart muscles.

Computer studies of polynomial solutions for gyrostat dynamics
Computer Research and Modeling, 2018, v. 10, no. 1, pp. 725Views (last year): 15.We study polynomial solutions of gyrostat motion equations under potential and gyroscopic forces applied and of gyrostat motion equations in magnetic field taking into account Barnett–London effect. Mathematically, either of the above mentioned problems is described by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations whose right hand sides contain fifteen constant parameters. These parameters characterize the gyrostat mass distribution, as well as potential and nonpotential forces acting on gyrostat. We consider polynomial solutions of Steklov–Kovalevski–Gorjachev and Doshkevich classes. The structure of invariant relations for polynomial solutions shows that, as a rule, on top of the fifteen parameters mentioned one should add no less than twenty five problem parameters. In the process of solving such a multiparametric problem in this paper we (in addition to analytic approach) apply numeric methods based on CAS. We break our studies of polynomial solutions existence into two steps. During the first step, we estimate maximal degrees of polynomials considered and obtain a nonlinear algebraic system for parameters of differential equations and polynomial solutions. In the second step (using the above CAS software) we study the solvability conditions of the system obtained and investigate the conditions of the constructed solutions to be real.
We construct two new polynomial solutions for Kirchhoff–Poisson. The first one is described by the following property: the projection squares of angular velocity on the nonbaracentric axes are the fifth degree polynomials of the angular velocity vector component of the baracentric axis that is represented via hypereliptic function of time. The second solution is characterized by the following: the first component of velocity conditions is a second degree polynomial, the second component is a polynomial of the third degree, and the square of the third component is the sixth degree polynomial of the auxiliary variable that is an inversion of the elliptic Legendre integral.
The third new partial solution we construct for gyrostat motion equations in the magnetic field with Barnett–London effect. Its structure is the following: the first and the second components of the angular velocity vector are the second degree polynomials, and the square of the third component is a fourth degree polynomial of the auxiliary variable which is found via inversion of the elliptic Legendre integral of the third kind.
All the solutions constructed in this paper are new and do not have analogues in the fixed point dynamics of a rigid body.

Cellular automata review based on modern domestic publications
Computer Research and Modeling, 2019, v. 11, no. 1, pp. 957Views (last year): 58.The paper contains the analysis of the domestic publications issued in 2013–2017 years and devoted to cellular automata. The most of them concern on mathematical modeling. Scientometric schedules for 1990–2017 years have proved relevance of subject. The review allows to allocate the main personalities and the scientific directions/schools in modern Russian science, to reveal their originality or secondness in comparison with world science. Due to the authors choice of national publications basis instead of world, the paper claims the completeness and the fact is that about 200 items from the checked 526 references have an importance for science.
In the Annex to the review provides preliminary information about CA — the Game of Life, a theorem about gardens of Eden, elementary CAs (together with the diagram of de Brujin), block Margolus’s CAs, alternating CAs. Attention is paid to three important for modeling semantic traditions of von Neumann, Zuse and Zetlin, as well as to the relationship with the concepts of neural networks and Petri nets. It is allocated conditional 10 works, which should be familiar to any specialist in CA. Some important works of the 1990s and later are listed in the Introduction.
Then the crowd of publications is divided into categories: the modification of the CA and other network models (29 %), Mathematical properties of the CA and the connection with mathematics (5 %), Hardware implementation (3 %), Software implementation (5 %), Data Processing, recognition and Cryptography (8 %), Mechanics, physics and chemistry (20 %), Biology, ecology and medicine (15 %), Economics, urban studies and sociology (15 %). In parentheses the share of subjects in the array are indicated. There is an increase in publications on CA in the humanitarian sphere, as well as the emergence of hybrid approaches, leading away from the classic CA definition.

Development of network computational models for the study of nonlinear wave processes on graphs
Computer Research and Modeling, 2019, v. 11, no. 5, pp. 777814In various applications arise problems modeled by nonlinear partial differential equations on graphs (networks, trees). In order to study such problems and various extreme situations arose in the problems of designing and optimizing networks developed the computational model based on solving the corresponding boundary problems for partial differential equations of hyperbolic type on graphs (networks, trees). As applications, three different problems were chosen solved in the framework of the general approach of network computational models. The first was modeling of traffic flow. In solving this problem, a macroscopic approach was used in which the transport flow is described by a nonlinear system of secondorder hyperbolic equations. The results of numerical simulations showed that the model developed as part of the proposed approach well reproduces the real situation various sections of the Moscow transport network on significant time intervals and can also be used to select the most optimal traffic management strategy in the city. The second was modeling of data flows in computer networks. In this problem data flows of various connections in packet data network were simulated as some continuous medium flows. Conceptual and mathematical network models are proposed. The numerical simulation was carried out in comparison with the NS2 network simulation system. The results showed that in comparison with the NS2 packet model the developed streaming model demonstrates significant savings in computing resources while ensuring a good level of similarity and allows us to simulate the behavior of complex globally distributed IP networks. The third was simulation of the distribution of gas impurities in ventilation networks. It was developed the computational mathematical model for the propagation of finely dispersed or gas impurities in ventilation networks using the gas dynamics equations by numerical linking of regions of different sizes. The calculations shown that the model with good accuracy allows to determine the distribution of gasdynamic parameters in the pipeline network and solve the problems of dynamic ventilation management.

Modeling the spatial scenario of the transition to chaos via torus breakup in the problem with concentrationdependent diffusion
Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, v. 12, no. 1, pp. 931In the last decades, universal scenarios of the transition to chaos in dynamic systems have been well studied. The scenario of the transition to chaos is defined as a sequence of bifurcations that occur in the system under the variation one of the governing parameters and lead to a qualitative change in dynamics, starting from the regular mode and ending with chaotic behavior. Typical scenarios include a cascade of period doubling bifurcations (Feigenbaum scenario), the breakup of a lowdimensional torus (Ruelle–Takens scenario), and the transition to chaos through the intermittency (Pomeau–Manneville scenario). In more complicated spatially distributed dynamic systems, the complexity of dynamic behavior growing with a parameter change is closely intertwined with the formation of spatial structures. However, the question of whether the spatial and temporal axes could completely exchange roles in some scenario still remains open. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a mathematical model of convection–diffusion–reaction, in which a spatial transition to chaos through the breakup of the quasi–periodic regime is realized in the framework of the Ruelle–Takens scenario. The physical system under consideration consists of two aqueous solutions of acid (A) and base (B), initially separated in space and placed in a vertically oriented Hele–Shaw cell subject to the gravity field. When the solutions are brought into contact, the frontal neutralization reaction of the second order A + B $\to$ C begins, which is accompanied by the production of salt (C). The process is characterized by a strong dependence of the diffusion coefficients of the reagents on their concentration, which leads to the appearance of two local zones of reduced density, in which chemoconvective fluid motions develop independently. Although the layers, in which convection develops, all the time remain separated by the interlayer of motionless fluid, they can influence each other via a diffusion of reagents through this interlayer. The emerging chemoconvective structure is the modulated standing wave that gradually breaks down over time, repeating the sequence of the bifurcation chain of the Ruelle–Takens scenario. We show that during the evolution of the system one of the spatial axes, directed along the reaction front, plays the role of time, and time itself starts to play the role of a control parameter.

Stable character of the Rice statistical distribution: the theory and application in the tasks of the signals’ phase shift measuring
Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, v. 12, no. 3, pp. 475485The paper concerns the study of the Rice statistical distribution’s peculiarities which cause the possibility of its efficient application in solving the tasks of high precision phase measuring in optics. The strict mathematical proof of the Rician distribution’s stable character is provided in the example of the differential signal consideration, namely: it has been proved that the sum or the difference of two Rician signals also obey the Rice distribution. Besides, the formulas have been obtained for the parameters of the resulting summand or differential signal’s Rice distribution. Based upon the proved stable character of the Rice distribution a new original technique of the high precision measuring of the two quasiharmonic signals’ phase shift has been elaborated in the paper. This technique is grounded in the statistical analysis of the measured sampled data for the amplitudes of the both signals and for the amplitude of the third signal which is equal to the difference of the two signals to be compared in phase. The soughtfor phase shift of two quasiharmonic signals is being calculated from the geometrical considerations as an angle of a triangle which sides are equal to the three indicated signals’ amplitude values having been reconstructed against the noise background. Thereby, the proposed technique of measuring the phase shift using the differential signal analysis, is based upon the amplitude measurements only, what significantly decreases the demands to the equipment and simplifies the technique implementation in practice. The paper provides both the strict mathematical substantiation of a new phase shift measuring technique and the results of its numerical testing. The elaborated method of high precision phase measurements may be efficiently applied for solving a wide circle of tasks in various areas of science and technology, in particular — at distance measuring, in communication systems, in navigation, etc.

Global limit cycle bifurcations of a polynomial Euler–Lagrange–Liénard system
Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, v. 12, no. 4, pp. 693705In this paper, using our bifurcationgeometric approach, we study global dynamics and solve the problem of the maximum number and distribution of limit cycles (selfoscillating regimes corresponding to states of dynamical equilibrium) in a planar polynomial mechanical system of the Euler–Lagrange–Liйnard type. Such systems are also used to model electrical, ecological, biomedical and other systems, which greatly facilitates the study of the corresponding real processes and systems with complex internal dynamics. They are used, in particular, in mechanical systems with damping and stiffness. There are a number of examples of technical systems that are described using quadratic damping in secondorder dynamical models. In robotics, for example, quadratic damping appears in directcoupled control and in nonlinear devices, such as variable impedance (resistance) actuators. Variable impedance actuators are of particular interest to collaborative robotics. To study the character and location of singular points in the phase plane of the Euler–Lagrange–Liйnard polynomial system, we use our method the meaning of which is to obtain the simplest (wellknown) system by vanishing some parameters (usually, field rotation parameters) of the original system and then to enter sequentially these parameters studying the dynamics of singular points in the phase plane. To study the singular points of the system, we use the classical Poincarй index theorems, as well as our original geometric approach based on the application of the Erugin twoisocline method which is especially effective in the study of infinite singularities. Using the obtained information on the singular points and applying canonical systems with field rotation parameters, as well as using the geometric properties of the spirals filling the internal and external regions of the limit cycles and applying our geometric approach to qualitative analysis, we study limit cycle bifurcations of the system under consideration.

Methods for resolving the Braess paradox in the presence of autonomous vehicles
Computer Research and Modeling, 2021, v. 13, no. 2, pp. 281294Roads are a shared resource which can be used either by drivers and autonomous vehicles. Since the total number of vehicles increases annually, each considered vehicle spends more time in traffic jams, and thus the total travel time prolongs. The main purpose while planning the road system is to reduce the time spent on traveling. The optimization of transportation networks is a current goal, thus the formation of traffic flows by creating certain ligaments of the roads is of high importance. The Braess paradox states the existence of a network where the construction of a new edge leads to the increase of traveling time. The objective of this paper is to propose various solutions to the Braess paradox in the presence of autonomous vehicles. One of the methods of solving transportation topology problems is to introduce artificial restrictions on traffic. As an example of such restrictions, this article considers designated lanes which are available only for a certain type of vehicles. Designated lanes have their own location in the network and operating conditions. This article observes the most common tworoads traffic situations, analyzes them using analytical and numerical methods and presents the model of optimal traffic flow distribution, which considers different ways of lanes designation on isolated transportation networks. It was found that the modeling of designated lanes eliminates Braess’ paradox and optimizes the total traveling time. The solutions were shown on artificial networks and on the reallife example. A modeling algorithm for Braess network was proposed and its correctness was verified using the reallife example.

Modeling time series trajectories using the Liouville equation
Computer Research and Modeling, 2024, v. 16, no. 3, pp. 585598This paper presents algorithm for modeling set of trajectories of nonstationary time series, based on a numerical scheme for approximating the sample density of the distribution function in a problem with fixed ends, when the initial distribution for a given number of steps transforms into a certain final distribution, so that at each step the semigroup property of solving the Liouville equation is satisfied. The model makes it possible to numerically construct evolving densities of distribution functions during random switching of states of the system generating the original time series.
The main problem is related to the fact that with the numerical implementation of the lefthand differential derivative in time, the solution becomes unstable, but such approach corresponds to the modeling of evolution. An integrative approach is used while choosing implicit stable schemes with “going into the future”, this does not match the semigroup property at each step. If, on the other hand, some real process is being modeled, in which goalsetting presumably takes place, then it is desirable to use schemes that generate a model of the transition process. Such model is used in the future in order to build a predictor of the disorder, which will allow you to determine exactly what state the process under study is going into, before the process really went into it. The model described in the article can be used as a tool for modeling real nonstationary time series.
Steps of the modeling scheme are described further. Fragments corresponding to certain states are selected from a given time series, for example, trends with specified slope angles and variances. Reference distributions of states are compiled from these fragments. Then the empirical distributions of the duration of the system’s stay in the specified states and the duration of the transition time from state to state are determined. In accordance with these empirical distributions, a probabilistic model of the disorder is constructed and the corresponding trajectories of the time series are modeled.
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