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Classification of dynamical switching regimes in a threelayered ferromagnetic nanopillar governed by spinpolarized injection current and external magnetic field. I. Longitudinal anisotropy
Computer Research and Modeling, 2016, v. 8, no. 4, pp. 605620Views (last year): 2. Citations: 6 (RSCI).The mathematical model of the magnetic memory cell MRAM with the inplane anisotropy axis parallel to the edge of a free ferromagnetic layer (longitudinal anisotropy) has been constructed using approximation of uniform magnetization. The model is based on the Landau–Lifshits–Gilbert equation with the injectioncurrent term in the Sloncžewski–Berger form. The set of ordinary differential equations for magnetization dynamics in a threelayered Co/Cu/Cu valve under the control of external magnetic field and spinpolarized current has been derived in the normal coordinate form. It was shown that the set of equations has two main stationary points on the anisotropy axis at any values of field and current. The stationary analysis of them has been performed. The algebraic equations for determination of additional stationary points have been derived. It has been shown that, depending on the field and current magnitude, the set of equations can have altogether two, four, or six stationary points symmetric in pairs relatively the anisotropy axis. The bifurcation diagrams for all the points have been constructed. The classification of the corresponding phase portraits has been performed. The typical trajectories were calculated numerically using Runge–Kutta method. The regions, where stable and unstable limit cycles exist, have been determined. It was found that the unstable limit cycles exist around the main stable equilibrium point on the axis that coincides with the anisotropy one, whereas the stable cycles surround the unstable additional points of equilibrium. The area of their existence was determined numerically. The new types of dynamics, such as accidental switching and noncomplete switching, have been found. The threshold values of switching current and field have been obtained analytically. The estimations of switching times have been performed numerically.

On the convergence of the implicit iterative linebyline recurrence method for solving difference elliptical equations
Computer Research and Modeling, 2017, v. 9, no. 6, pp. 857880Views (last year): 15. Citations: 1 (RSCI).In the article a theory of the implicit iterative linebyline recurrence method for solving the systems of finitedifference equations which arise as a result of approximation of the twodimensional elliptic differential equations on a regular grid is stated. On the one hand, the high effectiveness of the method has confirmed in practice. Some complex test problems, as well as several problems of fluid flow and heat transfer of a viscous incompressible liquid, have solved with its use. On the other hand, the theoretical provisions that explain the high convergence rate of the method and its stability are not yet presented in the literature. This fact is the reason for the present investigation. In the paper, the procedure of equivalent and approximate transformations of the initial system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE) is described in detail. The transformations are presented in a matrixvector form, as well as in the form of the computational formulas of the method. The key points of the transformations are illustrated by schemes of changing of the difference stencils that correspond to the transformed equations. The canonical form of the method is the goal of the transformation procedure. The correctness of the method follows from the canonical form in the case of the solution convergence. The estimation of norms of the matrix operators is carried out on the basis of analysis of structures and element sets of the corresponding matrices. As a result, the convergence of the method is proved for arbitrary initial vectors of the solution of the problem.
The norm of the transition matrix operator is estimated in the special case of weak restrictions on a desired solution. It is shown, that the value of this norm decreases proportionally to the second power (or third degree, it depends on the version of the method) of the grid step of the problem solution area in the case of transition matrix order increases. The necessary condition of the method stability is obtained by means of simple estimates of the vector of an approximate solution. Also, the estimate in order of magnitude of the optimum iterative compensation parameter is given. Theoretical conclusions are illustrated by using the solutions of the test problems. It is shown, that the number of the iterations required to achieve a given accuracy of the solution decreases if a grid size of the solution area increases. It is also demonstrated that if the weak restrictions on solution are violated in the choice of the initial approximation of the solution, then the rate of convergence of the method decreases essentially in full accordance with the deduced theoretical results.

Computer studies of polynomial solutions for gyrostat dynamics
Computer Research and Modeling, 2018, v. 10, no. 1, pp. 725Views (last year): 15.We study polynomial solutions of gyrostat motion equations under potential and gyroscopic forces applied and of gyrostat motion equations in magnetic field taking into account Barnett–London effect. Mathematically, either of the above mentioned problems is described by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations whose right hand sides contain fifteen constant parameters. These parameters characterize the gyrostat mass distribution, as well as potential and nonpotential forces acting on gyrostat. We consider polynomial solutions of Steklov–Kovalevski–Gorjachev and Doshkevich classes. The structure of invariant relations for polynomial solutions shows that, as a rule, on top of the fifteen parameters mentioned one should add no less than twenty five problem parameters. In the process of solving such a multiparametric problem in this paper we (in addition to analytic approach) apply numeric methods based on CAS. We break our studies of polynomial solutions existence into two steps. During the first step, we estimate maximal degrees of polynomials considered and obtain a nonlinear algebraic system for parameters of differential equations and polynomial solutions. In the second step (using the above CAS software) we study the solvability conditions of the system obtained and investigate the conditions of the constructed solutions to be real.
We construct two new polynomial solutions for Kirchhoff–Poisson. The first one is described by the following property: the projection squares of angular velocity on the nonbaracentric axes are the fifth degree polynomials of the angular velocity vector component of the baracentric axis that is represented via hypereliptic function of time. The second solution is characterized by the following: the first component of velocity conditions is a second degree polynomial, the second component is a polynomial of the third degree, and the square of the third component is the sixth degree polynomial of the auxiliary variable that is an inversion of the elliptic Legendre integral.
The third new partial solution we construct for gyrostat motion equations in the magnetic field with Barnett–London effect. Its structure is the following: the first and the second components of the angular velocity vector are the second degree polynomials, and the square of the third component is a fourth degree polynomial of the auxiliary variable which is found via inversion of the elliptic Legendre integral of the third kind.
All the solutions constructed in this paper are new and do not have analogues in the fixed point dynamics of a rigid body.

Quadratic Padé Approximation: Numerical Aspects and Applications
Computer Research and Modeling, 2019, v. 11, no. 6, pp. 10171031Padé approximation is a useful tool for extracting singularity information from a power series. A linear Padé approximant is a rational function and can provide estimates of pole and zero locations in the complex plane. A quadratic Padé approximant has square root singularities and can, therefore, provide additional information such as estimates of branch point locations. In this paper, we discuss numerical aspects of computing quadratic Padé approximants as well as some applications. Two algorithms for computing the coefficients in the approximant are discussed: a direct method involving the solution of a linear system (wellknown in the mathematics community) and a recursive method (wellknown in the physics community). We compare the accuracy of these two methods when implemented in floatingpoint arithmetic and discuss their pros and cons. In addition, we extend Luke’s perturbation analysis of linear Padé approximation to the quadratic case and identify the problem of spurious branch points in the quadratic approximant, which can cause a significant loss of accuracy. A possible remedy for this problem is suggested by noting that these troublesome points can be identified by the recursive method mentioned above. Another complication with the quadratic approximant arises in choosing the appropriate branch. One possibility, which is to base this choice on the linear approximant, is discussed in connection with an example due to Stahl. It is also known that the quadratic method is capable of providing reasonable approximations on secondary sheets of the Riemann surface, a fact we illustrate here by means of an example. Two concluding applications show the superiority of the quadratic approximant over its linear counterpart: one involving a special function (the Lambert $W$function) and the other a nonlinear PDE (the continuation of a solution of the inviscid Burgers equation into the complex plane).

The iterations’ number estimation for strongly polynomial linear programming algorithms
Computer Research and Modeling, 2024, v. 16, no. 2, pp. 249285A direct algorithm for solving a linear programming problem (LP), given in canonical form, is considered. The algorithm consists of two successive stages, in which the following LP problems are solved by a direct method: a nondegenerate auxiliary problem at the first stage and some problem equivalent to the original one at the second. The construction of the auxiliary problem is based on a multiplicative version of the Gaussian exclusion method, in the very structure of which there are possibilities: identification of incompatibility and linear dependence of constraints; identification of variables whose optimal values are obviously zero; the actual exclusion of direct variables and the reduction of the dimension of the space in which the solution of the original problem is determined. In the process of actual exclusion of variables, the algorithm generates a sequence of multipliers, the main rows of which form a matrix of constraints of the auxiliary problem, and the possibility of minimizing the filling of the main rows of multipliers is inherent in the very structure of direct methods. At the same time, there is no need to transfer information (basis, plan and optimal value of the objective function) to the second stage of the algorithm and apply one of the ways to eliminate looping to guarantee final convergence.
Two variants of the algorithm for solving the auxiliary problem in conjugate canonical form are presented. The first one is based on its solution by a direct algorithm in terms of the simplex method, and the second one is based on solving a problem dual to it by the simplex method. It is shown that both variants of the algorithm for the same initial data (inputs) generate the same sequence of points: the basic solution and the current dual solution of the vector of row estimates. Hence, it is concluded that the direct algorithm is an algorithm of the simplex method type. It is also shown that the comparison of numerical schemes leads to the conclusion that the direct algorithm allows to reduce, according to the cubic law, the number of arithmetic operations necessary to solve the auxiliary problem, compared with the simplex method. An estimate of the number of iterations is given.

Theoretical substantiation of the mathematical techniques for joint signal and noise estimation at rician data analysis
Computer Research and Modeling, 2016, v. 8, no. 3, pp. 445473Views (last year): 2. Citations: 2 (RSCI).The paper provides a solution of the twoparameter task of joint signal and noise estimation at data analysis within the conditions of the Rice distribution by the techniques of mathematical statistics: the maximum likelihood method and the variants of the method of moments. The considered variants of the method of moments include the following techniques: the joint signal and noise estimation on the basis of measuring the 2nd and the 4th moments (MM24) and on the basis of measuring the 1st and the 2nd moments (MM12). For each of the elaborated methods the explicit equations’ systems have been obtained for required parameters of the signal and noise. An important mathematical result of the investigation consists in the fact that the solution of the system of two nonlinear equations with two variables — the sought for signal and noise parameters — has been reduced to the solution of just one equation with one unknown quantity what is important from the view point of both the theoretical investigation of the proposed technique and its practical application, providing the possibility of essential decreasing the calculating resources required for the technique’s realization. The implemented theoretical analysis has resulted in an important practical conclusion: solving the twoparameter task does not lead to the increase of required numerical resources if compared with the oneparameter approximation. The task is meaningful for the purposes of the rician data processing, in particular — the image processing in the systems of magneticresonance visualization. The theoretical conclusions have been confirmed by the results of the numerical experiment.

Numerical solution of Urysohn type nonlinear second kind integral equations by successive quadratures using embedded Dormand and Prince scheme 5(4)
Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, v. 12, no. 2, pp. 275300We present the iterative algorithm that solves numerically both Urysohn type Fredholm and Volterra nonlinear onedimensional nonsingular integral equations of the second kind to a specified, modest userdefined accuracy. The algorithm is based on descending recursive sequence of quadratures. Convergence of numerical scheme is guaranteed by fixedpoint theorems. Picard’s method of integrating successive approximations is of great importance for the existence theory of integral equations but surprisingly very little appears on numerical algorithms for its direct implementation in the literature. We show that successive approximations method can be readily employed in numerical solution of integral equations. By that the quadrature algorithm is thoroughly designed. It is based on the explicit form of fifthorder embedded Runge–Kutta rule with adaptive stepsize selfcontrol. Since local error estimates may be cheaply obtained, continuous monitoring of the quadrature makes it possible to create very accurate automatic numerical schemes and to reduce considerably the main drawback of Picard iterations namely the extremely large amount of computations with increasing recursion depth. Our algorithm is organized so that as compared to most approaches the nonlinearity of integral equations does not induce any additional computational difficulties, it is very simple to apply and to make a program realization. Our algorithm exhibits some features of universality. First, it should be stressed that the method is as easy to apply to nonlinear as to linear equations of both Fredholm and Volterra kind. Second, the algorithm is equipped by stopping rules by which the calculations may to considerable extent be controlled automatically. A compact C++code of described algorithm is presented. Our program realization is selfconsistent: it demands no preliminary calculations, no external libraries and no additional memory is needed. Numerical examples are provided to show applicability, efficiency, robustness and accuracy of our approach.

An approach for the nonconvex uniformly concave structured saddle point problem
Computer Research and Modeling, 2022, v. 14, no. 2, pp. 225237Recently, saddle point problems have received much attention due to their powerful modeling capability for a lot of problems from diverse domains. Applications of these problems occur in many applied areas, such as robust optimization, distributed optimization, game theory, and many applications in machine learning such as empirical risk minimization and generative adversarial networks training. Therefore, many researchers have actively worked on developing numerical methods for solving saddle point problems in many different settings. This paper is devoted to developing a numerical method for solving saddle point problems in the nonconvex uniformlyconcave setting. We study a general class of saddle point problems with composite structure and H\"oldercontinuous higherorder derivatives. To solve the problem under consideration, we propose an approach in which we reduce the problem to a combination of two auxiliary optimization problems separately for each group of variables, the outer minimization problem w.r.t. primal variables, and the inner maximization problem w.r.t the dual variables. For solving the outer minimization problem, we use the Adaptive Gradient Method, which is applicable for nonconvex problems and also works with an inexact oracle that is generated by approximately solving the inner problem. For solving the inner maximization problem, we use the Restarted Unified Acceleration Framework, which is a framework that unifies the highorder acceleration methods for minimizing a convex function that has H\"oldercontinuous higherorder derivatives. Separate complexity bounds are provided for the number of calls to the firstorder oracles for the outer minimization problem and higherorder oracles for the inner maximization problem. Moreover, the complexity of the whole proposed approach is then estimated.

Neural network methods for optimal control problems
Computer Research and Modeling, 2022, v. 14, no. 3, pp. 539557In this study we discuss methods to solve optimal control problems based on neural network techniques. We study hierarchical dynamical twolevel system for surface water quality control. The system consists of a supervisor (government) and a few agents (enterprises). We consider this problem from the point of agents. In this case we solve optimal control problem with constraints. To solve this problem, we use Pontryagin’s maximum principle, with which we obtain optimality conditions. To solve emerging ODEs, we use feedforward neural network. We provide a review of existing techniques to study such problems and a review of neural network’s training methods. To estimate the error of numerical solution, we propose to use defect analysis method, adapted for neural networks. This allows one to get quantitative error estimations of numerical solution. We provide examples of our method’s usage for solving synthetic problem and a surface water quality control model. We compare the results of this examples with known solution (when provided) and the results of shooting method. In all cases the errors, estimated by our method are of the same order as the errors compared with known solution. Moreover, we study surface water quality control problem when no solutions is provided by other methods. This happens because of relatively large time interval and/or the case of several agents. In the latter case we seek Nash equilibrium between agents. Thus, in this study we show the ability of neural networks to solve various problems including optimal control problems and differential games and we show the ability of quantitative estimation of an error. From the numerical results we conclude that the presence of the supervisor is necessary for achieving the sustainable development.

Using feedback functions to solve parametric programming problems
Computer Research and Modeling, 2023, v. 15, no. 5, pp. 11251151We consider a finitedimensional optimization problem, the formulation of which in addition to the required variables contains parameters. The solution to this problem is a dependence of optimal values of variables on parameters. In general, these dependencies are not functions because they can have ambiguous meanings and in the functional case be nondifferentiable. In addition, their domain of definition may be narrower than the domains of definition of functions in the condition of the original problem. All these properties make it difficult to solve both the original parametric problem and other tasks, the statement of which includes these dependencies. To overcome these difficulties, usually methods such as nondifferentiable optimization are used.
This article proposes an alternative approach that makes it possible to obtain solutions to parametric problems in a form devoid of the specified properties. It is shown that such representations can be explored using standard algorithms, based on the Taylor formula. This form is a function smoothly approximating the solution of the original problem for any parameter values, specified in its statement. In this case, the value of the approximation error is controlled by a special parameter. Construction of proposed approximations is performed using special functions that establish feedback (within optimality conditions for the original problem) between variables and Lagrange multipliers. This method is described for linear problems with subsequent generalization to the nonlinear case.
From a computational point of view the construction of the approximation consists in finding the saddle point of the modified Lagrange function of the original problem. Moreover, this modification is performed in a special way using feedback functions. It is shown that the necessary conditions for the existence of such a saddle point are similar to the conditions of the Karush – Kuhn – Tucker theorem, but do not contain constraints such as inequalities and conditions of complementary slackness. Necessary conditions for the existence of a saddle point determine this approximation implicitly. Therefore, to calculate its differential characteristics, the implicit function theorem is used. The same theorem is used to reduce the approximation error to an acceptable level.
Features of the practical implementation feedback function method, including estimates of the rate of convergence to the exact solution are demonstrated for several specific classes of parametric optimization problems. Specifically, tasks searching for the global extremum of functions of many variables and the problem of multiple extremum (maximinminimax) are considered. Optimization problems that arise when using multicriteria mathematical models are also considered. For each of these classes, there are demo examples.
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