Modeling the physical processes of a powerful nuclear explosion on an asteroid

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As part of the paper, a physical and theoretical analysis of the impact processes of various factors of a highaltitude and high-energy nuclear explosion on the asteroid in extra-atmospheric conditions of open space is done. It is shown that, in accordance with the energy and permeability of the plasma of explosion products, X-ray and gamma-neutron radiation, a layered structure with a different energy density depending on angular coordinates is formed on the surface of the asteroid. The temporal patterns of the energy transformation for each layer is clarified and the roles of various photo- and collision processes are determined. The effect of a high-speed plasma flow is erosive in nature, and the plasma pulse is transmitted to the asteroid. The paper presents that in a thin layer of x-ray absorption, the asteroid substance is heated to high temperatures and as a result of its expansion, a recoil impulse is formed, which is not decisive due to the small mass of the expanding high-temperature plasma. Calculations shows that the main impulse received by an asteroid is associated with the entrainment of a heated layer of a substance formed by a neutron flux (7.5 E 1014 g E cm/s). It is shown that an asteroid with a radius of ~100 m acquires a velocity of . 100 cm/s. The calculations were performed taking into account the explosion energy spent on the destruction of the amorphous structure of the asteroid material (~1 eV/atom = 3.8 E 1010 erg/g) and ionization in the region of the high-temperature layer. Based on a similar analysis, an approximation is obtained for estimating the average size of fragments in the event of the possible destruction of the asteroid by shock waves generated inside it under the influence of pressure impulses. A physical experiment was conducted in laboratory conditions, simulating the fragmentation of a stone asteroid and confirming the validity of the obtained dependence on the selected values of certain parameters. As a result of numerical studies of the effects of the explosion, carried out at different distances from the surface of the asteroid, it is shown that taking into account the real geometry of the spallation layer gives the optimal height for the formation of the maximum asteroid momentum by a factor of 1.5 greater than similar estimates according to the simplified model. A two-stage concept of the impact of nuclear explosions on an asteroid using radar guidance tools is proposed. The paper analyzes the possible impact of the emerging ionization interference on the radar tracking of the movement of large fragments of the asteroid in the space-time evolution of all elements of the studied dynamic system.

Keywords: asteroid-comet hazard, nuclear explosion, fragmentation, high-altitude nuclear explosion
Citation in English: Andruschenko V.A., Moiseeva D.S., Motorin A.A., Stupitsky E.L. Modeling the physical processes of a powerful nuclear explosion on an asteroid // Computer Research and Modeling, 2019, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 861-877
Citation in English: Andruschenko V.A., Moiseeva D.S., Motorin A.A., Stupitsky E.L. Modeling the physical processes of a powerful nuclear explosion on an asteroid // Computer Research and Modeling, 2019, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 861-877
DOI: 10.20537/2076-7633-2019-11-5-861-877

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