Numerical studies of the structure of perturbed regions formed by powerful explosions at various heights. A review

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The review is based on some of the authors ’early works of particular scientific, methodological and practical interest and the greatest attention is paid to recent works, where quite detailed numerical studies of not only single, but also double and multiple explosions in a wide range of heights and environmental conditions have been performed . Since the shock wave of a powerful explosion is one of the main damaging factors in the lower atmosphere, the review focuses on both the physical analysis of their propagation and their interaction. Using the three-dimensional algorithms developed by the authors, the effects of interference and diffraction of several shock waves, which are interesting from a physical point of view, in the absence and presence of an underlying surface of various structures are considered. Quantitative characteristics are determined in the region of their maximum values, which is of known practical interest. For explosions in a dense atmosphere, some new analytical solutions based on the small perturbation method have been found that are convenient for approximate calculations. For a number of conditions, the possibility of using the self-similar properties of equations of the first and second kind to solve problems on the development of an explosion has been shown.

Based on numerical analysis, a fundamental change in the structure of the development of the perturbed region with a change in the height of the explosion in the range of 100–120 km is shown. At altitudes of more than 120 km, the geomagnetic field begins to influence the development of the explosion; therefore, even for a single explosion, the picture of the plasma flow after a few seconds becomes substantially three-dimensional. For the calculation of explosions at altitudes of 120–1000 km under the guidance of academician A. Kholodov. A special three-dimensional numerical algorithm based on the MHD approximation was developed. Numerous calculations were performed and for the first time a quite detailed picture of the three-dimensional flow of the explosion plasma was obtained with the formation of an upward jet in 5–10 s directed in the meridional plane approximately along the geomagnetic field. After some modification, this algorithm was used to calculate double explosions in the ionosphere, spaced a certain distance. The interaction between them was carried out both by plasma flows and through a geomagnetic field. Some results are given in this review and are described in detail in the original articles.

Keywords: numerical simulation, explosions in the atmosphere, single and multiple explosions, shock waves
Citation in English: Andruschenko V.A., Stupitsky E.L. Numerical studies of the structure of perturbed regions formed by powerful explosions at various heights. A review // Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 97-140
Citation in English: Andruschenko V.A., Stupitsky E.L. Numerical studies of the structure of perturbed regions formed by powerful explosions at various heights. A review // Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 97-140
DOI: 10.20537/2076-7633-2020-12-1-97-140

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