Biomathematical system of the nucleic acids description

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The article is devoted to the application of various methods of mathematical analysis, search for patterns and studying the composition of nucleotides in DNA sequences at the genomic level. New methods of mathematical biology that made it possible to detect and visualize the hidden ordering of genetic nucleotide sequences located in the chromosomes of cells of living organisms described. The research was based on the work on algebraic biology of the doctor of physical and mathematical sciences S. V. Petukhov, who first introduced and justified new algebras and hypercomplex numerical systems describing genetic phenomena. This paper describes a new phase in the development of matrix methods in genetics for studying the properties of nucleotide sequences (and their physicochemical parameters), built on the principles of finite geometry. The aim of the study is to demonstrate the capabilities of new algorithms and discuss the discovered properties of genetic DNA and RNA molecules. The study includes three stages: parameterization, scaling, and visualization. Parametrization is the determination of the parameters taken into account, which are based on the structural and physicochemical properties of nucleotides as elementary components of the genome. Scaling plays the role of “focusing” and allows you to explore genetic structures at various scales. Visualization includes the selection of the axes of the coordinate system and the method of visual display. The algorithms presented in this work are put forward as a new toolkit for the development of research software for the analysis of long nucleotide sequences with the ability to display genomes in parametric spaces of various dimensions. One of the significant results of the study is that new criteria were obtained for the classification of the genomes of various living organisms to identify interspecific relationships. The new concept allows visually and numerically assessing the variability of the physicochemical parameters of nucleotide sequences. This concept also allows one to substantiate the relationship between the parameters of DNA and RNA molecules with fractal geometric mosaics, reveals the ordering and symmetry of polynucleotides, as well as their noise immunity. The results obtained justified the introduction of new terms: “genometry” as a methodology of computational strategies and “genometrica” as specific parameters of a particular genome or nucleotide sequence. In connection with the results obtained, biosemiotics and hierarchical levels of organization of living matter are raised.

Keywords: genetic algorithms, variability, multivariate data analysis, chemical parameters of nucleic acids, finite geometry
Citation in English: Stepanyan I.V. Biomathematical system of the nucleic acids description // Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 417-434
Citation in English: Stepanyan I.V. Biomathematical system of the nucleic acids description // Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 417-434
DOI: 10.20537/2076-7633-2020-12-2-417-434

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