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Designing a zero on a linear manifold, a polyhedron, and a vertex of a polyhedron. Newton methods of minimization
Computer Research and Modeling, 2019, v. 11, no. 4, pp. 563591Views (last year): 6.We consider the approaches to the construction of methods for solving fourdimensional programming problems for calculating directions for multiple minimizations of smooth functions on a set of a given set of linear equalities. The approach consists of two stages.
At the first stage, the problem of quadratic programming is transformed by a numerically stable direct multiplicative algorithm into an equivalent problem of designing the origin of coordinates on a linear manifold, which defines a new mathematical formulation of the dual quadratic problem. For this, a numerically stable direct multiplicative method for solving systems of linear equations is proposed, taking into account the sparsity of matrices presented in packaged form. The advantage of this approach is to calculate the modified Cholesky factors to construct a substantially positive definite matrix of the system of equations and its solution in the framework of one procedure. And also in the possibility of minimizing the filling of the main rows of multipliers without losing the accuracy of the results, and no changes are made in the position of the next processed row of the matrix, which allows the use of static data storage formats.
At the second stage, the necessary and sufficient optimality conditions in the form of Kuhn–Tucker determine the calculation of the direction of descent — the solution of the dual quadratic problem is reduced to solving a system of linear equations with symmetric positive definite matrix for calculating of Lagrange's coefficients multipliers and to substituting the solution into the formula for calculating the direction of descent.
It is proved that the proposed approach to the calculation of the direction of descent by numerically stable direct multiplicative methods at one iteration requires a cubic law less computation than one iteration compared to the wellknown dual method of Gill and Murray. Besides, the proposed method allows the organization of the computational process from any starting point that the user chooses as the initial approximation of the solution.
Variants of the problem of designing the origin of coordinates on a linear manifold, a convex polyhedron and a vertex of a convex polyhedron are presented. Also the relationship and implementation of methods for solving these problems are described.

Direct multiplicative methods for sparse matrices. Unbalanced linear systems.
Computer Research and Modeling, 2016, v. 8, no. 6, pp. 833860Views (last year): 20. Citations: 2 (RSCI).Small practical value of many numerical methods for solving singleended systems of linear equations with illconditioned matrices due to the fact that these methods in the practice behave quite differently than in the case of precise calculations. Historically, sustainability is not enough attention was given, unlike in numerical algebra ‘mediumsized’, and emphasis is given to solving the problems of maximal order in data capabilities of the computer, including the expense of some loss of accuracy. Therefore, the main objects of study is the most appropriate storage of information contained in the sparse matrix; maintaining the highest degree of rarefaction at all stages of the computational process. Thus, the development of efficient numerical methods for solving unstable systems refers to the actual problems of computational mathematics.
In this paper, the approach to the construction of numerically stable direct multiplier methods for solving systems of linear equations, taking into account sparseness of matrices, presented in packaged form. The advantage of the approach consists in minimization of filling the main lines of the multipliers without compromising accuracy of the results and changes in the position of the next processed row of the matrix are made that allows you to use static data storage formats. The storage format of sparse matrices has been studied and the advantage of this format consists in possibility of parallel execution any matrix operations without unboxing, which significantly reduces the execution time and memory footprint.
Direct multiplier methods for solving systems of linear equations are best suited for solving problems of large size on a computer — sparse matrix systems allow you to get multipliers, the main row of which is also sparse, and the operation of multiplication of a vectorrow of the multiplier according to the complexity proportional to the number of nonzero elements of this multiplier.
As a direct continuation of this work is proposed in the basis for constructing a direct multiplier algorithm of linear programming to put a modification of the direct multiplier algorithm for solving systems of linear equations based on integration of technique of linear programming for methods to select the host item. Direct multiplicative methods of linear programming are best suited for the construction of a direct multiplicative algorithm set the direction of descent Newton methods in unconstrained optimization by integrating one of the existing design techniques significantly positive definite matrix of the second derivatives.

Direct multiplicative methods for sparse matrices. Linear programming
Computer Research and Modeling, 2017, v. 9, no. 2, pp. 143165Views (last year): 10. Citations: 2 (RSCI).Multiplicative methods for sparse matrices are best suited to reduce the complexity of operations solving systems of linear equations performed on each iteration of the simplex method. The matrix of constraints in these problems of sparsely populated nonzero elements, which allows to obtain the multipliers, the main columns which are also sparse, and the operation of multiplication of a vector by a multiplier according to the complexity proportional to the number of nonzero elements of this multiplier. In addition, the transition to the adjacent basis multiplier representation quite easily corrected. To improve the efficiency of such methods requires a decrease in occupancy multiplicative representation of the nonzero elements. However, at each iteration of the algorithm to the sequence of multipliers added another. As the complexity of multiplication grows and linearly depends on the length of the sequence. So you want to run from time to time the recalculation of inverse matrix, getting it from the unit. Overall, however, the problem is not solved. In addition, the set of multipliers is a sequence of structures, and the size of this sequence is inconvenient is large and not precisely known. Multiplicative methods do not take into account the factors of the high degree of sparseness of the original matrices and constraints of equality, require the determination of initial basic feasible solution of the problem and, consequently, do not allow to reduce the dimensionality of a linear programming problem and the regular procedure of compression — dimensionality reduction of multipliers and exceptions of the nonzero elements from all the main columns of multipliers obtained in previous iterations. Thus, the development of numerical methods for the solution of linear programming problems, which allows to overcome or substantially reduce the shortcomings of the schemes implementation of the simplex method, refers to the current problems of computational mathematics.
In this paper, the approach to the construction of numerically stable direct multiplier methods for solving problems in linear programming, taking into account sparseness of matrices, presented in packaged form. The advantage of the approach is to reduce dimensionality and minimize filling of the main rows of multipliers without compromising accuracy of the results and changes in the position of the next processed row of the matrix are made that allows you to use static data storage formats.
As a direct continuation of this work is the basis for constructing a direct multiplicative algorithm set the direction of descent in the Newton methods for unconstrained optimization is proposed to put a modification of the direct multiplier method, linear programming by integrating one of the existing design techniques significantly positive definite matrix of the second derivatives.

Experimental study of the dynamics of single and connected in a lattice complexvalued mappings: the architecture and interface of author’s software for modeling
Computer Research and Modeling, 2021, v. 13, no. 6, pp. 11011124The paper describes a free software for research in the field of holomorphic dynamics based on the computational capabilities of the MATLAB environment. The software allows constructing not only single complexvalued mappings, but also their collectives as linearly connected, on a square or hexagonal lattice. In the first case, analogs of the Julia set (in the form of escaping points with color indication of the escape velocity), Fatou (with chaotic dynamics highlighting), and the Mandelbrot set generated by one of two free parameters are constructed. In the second case, only the dynamics of a cellular automaton with a complexvalued state of the cells and of all the coefficients in the local transition function is considered. The abstract nature of objectoriented programming makes it possible to combine both types of calculations within a single program that describes the iterated dynamics of one object.
The presented software provides a set of options for the field shape, initial conditions, neighborhood template, and boundary cells neighborhood features. The mapping display type can be specified by a regular expression for the MATLAB interpreter. This paper provides some UML diagrams, a short introduction to the user interface, and some examples.
The following cases are considered as example illustrations containing new scientific knowledge:
1) a linear fractional mapping in the form $Az^{n} +B/z^{n} $, for which the cases $n=2$, $4$, $n>1$, are known. In the portrait of the Fatou set, attention is drawn to the characteristic (for the classical quadratic mapping) figures of <>, showing shortperiod regimes, components of conventionally chaotic dynamics in the sea;
2) for the Mandelbrot set with a nonstandard position of the parameter in the exponent $z(t+1)\Leftarrow z(t)^{\mu } $ sketch calculations reveal some jagged structures and point clouds resembling Cantor's dust, which are not Cantor's bouquets that are characteristic for exponential mapping. Further detailing of these objects with complex topology is required.

The iterations’ number estimation for strongly polynomial linear programming algorithms
Computer Research and Modeling, 2024, v. 16, no. 2, pp. 249285A direct algorithm for solving a linear programming problem (LP), given in canonical form, is considered. The algorithm consists of two successive stages, in which the following LP problems are solved by a direct method: a nondegenerate auxiliary problem at the first stage and some problem equivalent to the original one at the second. The construction of the auxiliary problem is based on a multiplicative version of the Gaussian exclusion method, in the very structure of which there are possibilities: identification of incompatibility and linear dependence of constraints; identification of variables whose optimal values are obviously zero; the actual exclusion of direct variables and the reduction of the dimension of the space in which the solution of the original problem is determined. In the process of actual exclusion of variables, the algorithm generates a sequence of multipliers, the main rows of which form a matrix of constraints of the auxiliary problem, and the possibility of minimizing the filling of the main rows of multipliers is inherent in the very structure of direct methods. At the same time, there is no need to transfer information (basis, plan and optimal value of the objective function) to the second stage of the algorithm and apply one of the ways to eliminate looping to guarantee final convergence.
Two variants of the algorithm for solving the auxiliary problem in conjugate canonical form are presented. The first one is based on its solution by a direct algorithm in terms of the simplex method, and the second one is based on solving a problem dual to it by the simplex method. It is shown that both variants of the algorithm for the same initial data (inputs) generate the same sequence of points: the basic solution and the current dual solution of the vector of row estimates. Hence, it is concluded that the direct algorithm is an algorithm of the simplex method type. It is also shown that the comparison of numerical schemes leads to the conclusion that the direct algorithm allows to reduce, according to the cubic law, the number of arithmetic operations necessary to solve the auxiliary problem, compared with the simplex method. An estimate of the number of iterations is given.

Direct multiplicative methods for sparse matrices. Newton methods
Computer Research and Modeling, 2017, v. 9, no. 5, pp. 679703Views (last year): 7. Citations: 1 (RSCI).We consider a numerically stable direct multiplicative algorithm of solving linear equations systems, which takes into account the sparseness of matrices presented in a packed form. The advantage of the algorithm is the ability to minimize the filling of the main rows of multipliers without losing the accuracy of the results. Moreover, changes in the position of the next processed row of the matrix are not made, what allows using static data storage formats. Linear system solving by a direct multiplicative algorithm is, like the solving with $LU$decomposition, just another scheme of the Gaussian elimination method implementation.
In this paper, this algorithm is the basis for solving the following problems:
Problem 1. Setting the descent direction in Newtonian methods of unconditional optimization by integrating one of the known techniques of constructing an essentially positive definite matrix. This approach allows us to weaken or remove additional specific difficulties caused by the need to solve large equation systems with sparse matrices presented in a packed form.
Problem 2. Construction of a new mathematical formulation of the problem of quadratic programming and a new form of specifying necessary and sufficient optimality conditions. They are quite simple and can be used to construct mathematical programming methods, for example, to find the minimum of a quadratic function on a polyhedral set of constraints, based on solving linear equations systems, which dimension is not higher than the number of variables of the objective function.
Problem 3. Construction of a continuous analogue of the problem of minimizing a real quadratic polynomial in Boolean variables and a new form of defining necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality for the development of methods for solving them in polynomial time. As a result, the original problem is reduced to the problem of finding the minimum distance between the origin and the angular point of a convex polyhedron, which is a perturbation of the $n$dimensional cube and is described by a system of double linear inequalities with an upper triangular matrix of coefficients with units on the main diagonal. Only two faces are subject to investigation, one of which or both contains the vertices closest to the origin. To calculate them, it is sufficient to solve $4n – 4$ linear equations systems and choose among them all the nearest equidistant vertices in polynomial time. The problem of minimizing a quadratic polynomial is $NP$hard, since an $NP$hard problem about a vertex covering for an arbitrary graph comes down to it. It follows therefrom that $P = NP$, which is based on the development beyond the limits of integer optimization methods.

Finite difference schemes for linear advection equation solving under generalized approximation condition
Computer Research and Modeling, 2018, v. 10, no. 2, pp. 181193Views (last year): 27.A set of implicit difference schemes on the fivepointwise stensil is under construction. The analysis of properties of difference schemes is carried out in a space of undetermined coefficients. The spaces were introduced for the first time by A. S. Kholodov. Usually for properties of difference schemes investigation the problem of the linear programming was constructed. The coefficient at the main term of a discrepancy was considered as the target function. The optimization task with inequalities type restrictions was considered for construction of the monotonic difference schemes. The limitation of such an approach becomes clear taking into account that approximation of the difference scheme is defined only on the classical (smooth) solutions of partial differential equations.
The functional which minimum will be found put in compliance to the difference scheme. The functional must be the linear on the difference schemes coefficients. It is possible that the functional depends on net function – the solution of a difference task or a grid projection of the differential problem solution. If the initial terms of the functional expansion in a Taylor series on grid parameters are equal to conditions of classical approximation, we will call that the functional will be the generalized condition of approximation. It is shown that such functionals exist. For the simple linear partial differential equation with constant coefficients construction of the functional is possible also for the generalized (nonsmooth) solution of a differential problem.
Families of functionals both for smooth solutions of an initial differential problem and for the generalized solution are constructed. The new difference schemes based on the analysis of the functionals by linear programming methods are constructed. At the same time the research of couple of selfdual problems of the linear programming is used. The optimum monotonic difference scheme possessing the first order of approximation on the smooth solution of differential problem is found. The possibility of application of the new schemes for creation of hybrid difference methods of the raised approximation order on smooth solutions is discussed.
The example of numerical implementation of the simplest difference scheme with the generalized approximation is given.

Direct multiplicative methods for sparse matrices. Quadratic programming
Computer Research and Modeling, 2018, v. 10, no. 4, pp. 407420Views (last year): 32.A numerically stable direct multiplicative method for solving systems of linear equations that takes into account the sparseness of matrices presented in a packed form is considered. The advantage of the method is the calculation of the Cholesky factors for a positive definite matrix of the system of equations and its solution within the framework of one procedure. And also in the possibility of minimizing the filling of the main rows of multipliers without losing the accuracy of the results, and no changes are made to the position of the next processed row of the matrix, which allows using static data storage formats. The solution of the system of linear equations by a direct multiplicative algorithm is, like the solution with LUdecomposition, just another scheme for implementing the Gaussian elimination method.
The calculation of the Cholesky factors for a positive definite matrix of the system and its solution underlies the construction of a new mathematical formulation of the unconditional problem of quadratic programming and a new form of specifying necessary and sufficient conditions for optimality that are quite simple and are used in this paper to construct a new mathematical formulation for the problem of quadratic programming on a polyhedral set of constraints, which is the problem of finding the minimum distance between the origin ordinate and polyhedral boundary by means of a set of constraints and linear algebra dimensional geometry.
To determine the distance, it is proposed to apply the known exact method based on solving systems of linear equations whose dimension is not higher than the number of variables of the objective function. The distances are determined by the construction of perpendiculars to the faces of a polyhedron of different dimensions. To reduce the number of faces examined, the proposed method involves a special order of sorting the faces. Only the faces containing the vertex closest to the point of the unconditional extremum and visible from this point are subject to investigation. In the case of the presence of several nearest equidistant vertices, we investigate a face containing all these vertices and faces of smaller dimension that have at least two common nearest vertices with the first face.

Numerical solution of Urysohn type nonlinear second kind integral equations by successive quadratures using embedded Dormand and Prince scheme 5(4)
Computer Research and Modeling, 2020, v. 12, no. 2, pp. 275300We present the iterative algorithm that solves numerically both Urysohn type Fredholm and Volterra nonlinear onedimensional nonsingular integral equations of the second kind to a specified, modest userdefined accuracy. The algorithm is based on descending recursive sequence of quadratures. Convergence of numerical scheme is guaranteed by fixedpoint theorems. Picard’s method of integrating successive approximations is of great importance for the existence theory of integral equations but surprisingly very little appears on numerical algorithms for its direct implementation in the literature. We show that successive approximations method can be readily employed in numerical solution of integral equations. By that the quadrature algorithm is thoroughly designed. It is based on the explicit form of fifthorder embedded Runge–Kutta rule with adaptive stepsize selfcontrol. Since local error estimates may be cheaply obtained, continuous monitoring of the quadrature makes it possible to create very accurate automatic numerical schemes and to reduce considerably the main drawback of Picard iterations namely the extremely large amount of computations with increasing recursion depth. Our algorithm is organized so that as compared to most approaches the nonlinearity of integral equations does not induce any additional computational difficulties, it is very simple to apply and to make a program realization. Our algorithm exhibits some features of universality. First, it should be stressed that the method is as easy to apply to nonlinear as to linear equations of both Fredholm and Volterra kind. Second, the algorithm is equipped by stopping rules by which the calculations may to considerable extent be controlled automatically. A compact C++code of described algorithm is presented. Our program realization is selfconsistent: it demands no preliminary calculations, no external libraries and no additional memory is needed. Numerical examples are provided to show applicability, efficiency, robustness and accuracy of our approach.

Using feedback functions to solve parametric programming problems
Computer Research and Modeling, 2023, v. 15, no. 5, pp. 11251151We consider a finitedimensional optimization problem, the formulation of which in addition to the required variables contains parameters. The solution to this problem is a dependence of optimal values of variables on parameters. In general, these dependencies are not functions because they can have ambiguous meanings and in the functional case be nondifferentiable. In addition, their domain of definition may be narrower than the domains of definition of functions in the condition of the original problem. All these properties make it difficult to solve both the original parametric problem and other tasks, the statement of which includes these dependencies. To overcome these difficulties, usually methods such as nondifferentiable optimization are used.
This article proposes an alternative approach that makes it possible to obtain solutions to parametric problems in a form devoid of the specified properties. It is shown that such representations can be explored using standard algorithms, based on the Taylor formula. This form is a function smoothly approximating the solution of the original problem for any parameter values, specified in its statement. In this case, the value of the approximation error is controlled by a special parameter. Construction of proposed approximations is performed using special functions that establish feedback (within optimality conditions for the original problem) between variables and Lagrange multipliers. This method is described for linear problems with subsequent generalization to the nonlinear case.
From a computational point of view the construction of the approximation consists in finding the saddle point of the modified Lagrange function of the original problem. Moreover, this modification is performed in a special way using feedback functions. It is shown that the necessary conditions for the existence of such a saddle point are similar to the conditions of the Karush – Kuhn – Tucker theorem, but do not contain constraints such as inequalities and conditions of complementary slackness. Necessary conditions for the existence of a saddle point determine this approximation implicitly. Therefore, to calculate its differential characteristics, the implicit function theorem is used. The same theorem is used to reduce the approximation error to an acceptable level.
Features of the practical implementation feedback function method, including estimates of the rate of convergence to the exact solution are demonstrated for several specific classes of parametric optimization problems. Specifically, tasks searching for the global extremum of functions of many variables and the problem of multiple extremum (maximinminimax) are considered. Optimization problems that arise when using multicriteria mathematical models are also considered. For each of these classes, there are demo examples.
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